Highlights

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European Citizenship at the Crossroads


This book examines the changing role played by the European Union and international standards on loss and acquisition of nationality. It provides a comparative analysis of EU Member States regulations, administrative practices, court rulings and statistical data on questions related to loss of nationality and European citizenship. It assesses the multifaceted repercussions of the supranational venues of judicial and legal accountability over states autonomy and competences at times of deciding who is and who is not a citizen. The following questions are examined: to what the extent do EU Member States still hold the exclusive competence over domestic decisions in nationality matters? How do international and European legal principles and standards, as well as case-law by European courts progressively affect their margin of manoeuvre at times of deciding who is and who is not a ‘citizen’? What are the repercussions of their obligations in safeguarding citizenship of the Union? List of contents Preface 
   Gerard-René de Groot and Sergio Carrera Nuñez
About the Authors 
Abbreviations 
List of Tables and Figures 
Foreword 

   Zeta Georgiadou PART I: LOSS AND QUASI-LOSS OF NATIONALITY IN THE EU
Chapter 1 
Introduction: European Citizenship at a Crossroads
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez and Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 2 
Survey on Rules on Loss of Nationality in International
Treaties and Case Law
   Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 3 
A Comparative Analysis of Regulations on Involuntary
Loss of Nationality in the European Union
   Gerard-René de Groot and Maarten Peter Vink
Chapter 4
Reflections on Quasi-Loss of Nationality from
Comparative, International and European Perspectives
   Gerard-René de Groot and Patrick Wautelet
Chapter 5 
Mapping Statistics on Loss of Nationality in the EU:
A New Online Database
   Maarten Peter Vink and Ngo Chun Luk PART II: NATIONAL PERSPECTIVES AND DEVELOPMENTS
Chapter 6
Loss of Nationality in the Nordic Countries 185
   Eva Ersbøll
Chapter 7 
Deprivation of Citizenship:
The Latvian Example and EU Perspective
   Kristine Kruma
Chapter 8 
Is it Possible to Lose the Hungarian Nationality?
   Judit Tóth
Chapter 9 
Iberian Nationality Legislation and Sephardic Jews:
‘With due regard to European law’?
   Hans Ulrich Jessurun d’Oliveira
Chapter 10 
Attribution of Spanish Nationality to Children Born in Spain with the
Purpose of Avoiding Situations of Statelessness at Birth.
   Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez and Guayasén
   Marrero González
Chapter 11 
How Much Does EU Citizenship Cost? The Maltese Citizenship-for-Sale
Affair: A Breakthrough for Sincere Cooperation in Citizenship of the Union?
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez PART III
ROTTMANN IN THE COURTS OF THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION:
A collection of judgements, pending cases and caselaw notes 1. AUSTRIA
Gerard-René de Groot
1.1. CASE 1: An Austrian husband of Macedonian origin 
1.1.1. Text of the judgement 
1.1.2. Case Note 
1.2. CASE 2: An Austrian wife of Nigerian origin 
1.2.1. Text of the judgement 
1.2.2. Case Note 
1.3. CASE 3: An Austrian husband of Turkish origin 
1.3.1. Text of the judgement 
1.3.2. Case Note  2. BELGIUM
   Patrick Wautelet
2.1. CASE 4: Two Belgian children born in China 
2.1.1. Text of the judgement 
2.1.2. Case Note  3. CYPRUS
   Nicoletta Charalambidou
3.1. CASE 5 
3.1.1. Text of the judgement 
3.1.2. Case Note  4. DENMARK
   Eva Ersbøll
4.1. PENDING CASE 
4.1.1. Case description  5. GERMANY
   Gerard-René de Groot
5.1. CASE 6: The fate of Janko Rottmann 
5.1.1. Text of the judgement 
5.1.2. Case Note 
5.2. CASE 7: A German with Turkish roots 
5.2.1. Text of the judgement 
5.2.2. Case Note  6. LATVIA
   Kristine Kruma
6.1. CASE 8: A Latvian with a Russian background 
6.1.1. Text of the judgement: Court of First Instance 
6.1.2. Text of the judgement: Latvian Supreme Court 
6.1.3. Case Note  7. MALTA
   Daniela DeBono
7.1. CASE 9 
7.1.1. Text of the judgements: First Hall of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.2. Text of the judgements: Court of Appeals of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.3. Case Note  8. THE NETHERLANDS
   Ngo Chun Luk
8.1. Combined Case Note 
8.2. CASE 10: Parental error 
8.3. CASE 11: Syrian, not Iraqi 
8.4. CASE 12: Unintentional fraud 
8.5. CASE 13: Fictitious parentage 
8.6. CASE 14: Bigamous Egyptian 
8.7. CASE 15: Hidden criminal antecedents 
8.8. CASE 16: Identity fraud in Limburg 
8.9. Final Remarks 
8.10. Text of Judgments  9. THE NETHERLANDS
   Gerard-René de Groot
9.1. PENDING CASE 2: Dutch twins? 
9.1.1. Case description  10. SPAIN
   Guayasén Marrero González
10.1. CASE 17: Temporary residence permit on the grounds of exceptional circumstances (social         integration)
10.1.1. Text of the judgement 
10.1.2. Case Note  11. UNITED KINGDOM
11.1. PENDING CASE 3: A British Vietnamese involved in terrorism? 
11.1.1. Appeal: Court of Appeal of England and Wales 
11.1.2. Final appeal: Supreme Court – case description  12. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
   Gerard-René de Groot
12.1. PENDING CASE 4: A Maltese husband of Egyptian origin 
12.1.1. Case description 
12.1.2. Comments 

ANNEX 1.
Guidelines Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (ILEC Guidelines 2015) 
Gerard-René de Groot, Maarten Peter Vink and Patrick Wautelet REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 
 

Forthcoming Publications

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Background to the crisis in Syria and perspectives on human rights & humanitarian law violations
Yana Ballod

Since the beginning of the crisis in Syria, in mid-March 2011, the context in which it is regarded has been constantly changing. Four years later, the escalating violent armed conflict, fired from the “Arab Spring” movement has led to the rise of terrorist groups and a huge wave of refugees fleeing from the country. The present publication addresses the developments before 2011, as well as between mid-March 2011 and July 2015. It provides the factual background to the crisis and its analysis within the scope of humanitarian and human rights law. This volume is useful for understanding the roots of the crisis and its circumstances before summer 2015. A detailed research on what has happened and is happening in Syria brings up numerous unsolved issues within the international community. International law provides several possibilities for conflict resolution and stabilising crises: timely and effective response of international community represented by United Nations and its agencies, in particular United Nations Security Council; enforcement of the responsibility to protect; imposing sanctions; bringing to international justice and internationally addressing elements of the crisis, e. g. terrorism. However, with the involvement of different international actors, the implementation of international law depends on the particular behaviour of each of them. This way even erga omnes norms become voluntary. In the case of Syria, the application of international law instruments has been accompanied by hesitation. Cross-regional, regional and internal tensions prevented international community from shaping a coherent and decisive response to mass atrocities taking place in Syria. Thus, this research questions the existing system of leverages and sets an ambitious goal of finding out how to change it.

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SOLVING STATELESSNESS
Laura Van Waas and Melanie Khanna (eds)

Interest in statelessness has been steadily increasing since the late 1990s – within academia, among governments, at the UN and among civil society organisations. Research projects, mapping studies and doctrinal discussions have helped to clarify the challenges faced and our understanding of what is at stake. This has led to a fresh sense of purpose in addressing the issue and there is now a growing international movement engaged in finding solutions, spurred on by the UNHCR-led #IBelong Campaign to End Statelessness by 2024. Making meaningful progress towards this goal demands a new and more ambitious approach, one that moves beyond stocktaking to inspire solutions. As Volker Türk outlines in his introduction to this ground-breaking publication: “The global debates have moved beyond the need to explain the problem and its causes and consequences. The time has come to accelerate the momentum to implement durable solutions effectively.” The essays which have been collected in this edited volume all approach statelessness from a solutions perspective, looking at what is being done, and what more can be done, to address the issue. The first part of the book has a thematic focus, exploring perspectives, tools and techniques for solving statelessness which are relevant across different countries and regions. Chapters in the second part each have a regional focus, exploring region-specific challenges, developments and innovations set against the backdrop of the broader context of a global campaign to solve statelessness. With contributions from both scholars and practitioners, the book is likely to be of interest to anyone engaged in studying or implementing solutions for statelessness, including researchers, government policy-makers, staff of international or regional inter-governmental bodies and UN agencies, grass-roots and international civil society organisations, legal practitioners and advanced-level students.

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For Justice and Mercy
Ryan van Eijk, Gerard Loman, Theo W.A. de Wit (Eds.)

Publications on an international level and addressing prison chaplaincy from different (continental and disciplinary) angles are rare. Most publications regarding prison chaplaincy are monographies by theologians or prison chaplains, or books from (ex-)inmates witnessing their personal conversion.   For Justice and Mercy offers international texts on the positioning of prison chaplaincy and examples from the praxis, as well as from several contexts and concepts. However, the focus is not exclusively on global perspectives. But the publication is certainly international for its contributors are academics or experienced prison chaplains from all continents who are offering their research and reflections from different scientific disciplines on aspects which are of interest for prison chaplaincy in general. Most articles are written from the catholic point of view. The reason is that the initiative for this publication was taken by the executive board of the International Commission of Catholic Pastoral Care (ICCPPC) to pay extra attention to its 65 years existence, and to the Year of Mercy.

Recent Publications

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Monitor Wsnp 2015
2015L. Combrink-Kuiters & S.L. Peters (RvR) en C. Verkleij (CBS) (red.)

De Raad voor Rechtsbijstand heeft een aantal wettelijke taken in het kader van de Wet schuldsanering natuurlijke personen (Wsnp). Bureau Wsnp in ’s-Hertogenbosch is verantwoordelijk voor de uitvoering van deze taken. In augustus 2005 verscheen de eerste Wsnp-monitor. Dit jaarlijks uit te brengen instrument heeft als doel de effectiviteit van de Wsnp te monitoren. Aan deze twaalfde meting van de Wsnp-monitor hebben zowel de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand als het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek een bijdrage geleverd. Deze meting vormt een actualisering van en een aanvulling op de in 2015 verschenen elfde meting. De Monitor Wsnp 2015 geeft een update van een vaste set gegevens over aanvraag, afwijzing, instroom, aanbod, doorstroom en uitkomsten en over de aantallen verzoeken dwangakkoord, moratorium en voorlopige voorziening en de uitspraken hierop. Daarnaast bevat deze meting de resultaten van onderzoek naar de samenloop van Wsnp met beschermingsbewind en naar de praktijk van ex-sanieten en BKR en toeslagen Belastingdienst.

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Trust on the line
Esther Keymolen

Governments, companies, and citizens all think trust is important. Especially today, in the networked era, where we make use of all sorts of e-services and increasingly interact and buy online, trust has become a necessary condition for society to thrive. But what do we mean when we talk about trust and how does the rise of the Internet transform the functioning of trust? This books starts off with a thorough conceptual analysis of trust, drawing on insights from -amongst othersphilosophy and sociology to sharpen our understanding of the topic. The book explains how the arrival of large systems – such as the internet- has changed the character of trust which today is no longer based on interpersonal interactions but has become completely mediated by technologies. Based on the layered building plan of the Internet itself, a new conceptual lens called 4 Cs is developed to analyse and understand trust in the networked era. The 4Cs refer to the 4 layers which all have to be taken into account to assess trust online, namely: context,code, codification, and curation. The 4cs bring together the firsthand experiences of the user (context), the sort of technology that is being used (code), the legal implication (codification) and business interests (curation) in order to get a clear picture of the trust issues that may arise. In the final part of the book some real-life cases are discussed (digital hotel keys, Airbnb, online personalization) to illustrate how trust –analysed through the 4 Cs lens- might flourish or be challenged in our current networked era.

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De rechter onder vuur
Rolf Ortlep, Frank Groothuijse, Jeroen Kiewiet, Remco Nehmelman (red.)

Dit jaar bestaat het Instituut Staats- en Bestuursrecht en Rechtstheorie 55 jaar. Ter viering van onder meer dit elfde lustrum is een jubileumbundel samengesteld. Wanneer in de literatuur of in de media gesproken wordt over de rechter, dan is het vaak in de trant van dat hij te activistisch of te defensief heeft opgetreden. In die zin ligt de rechter veelvuldig onder vuur. De rechter vervult binnen de rechtsstaat een zekere dubbelrol: enerzijds is hij de bewaker van de rechten en vrijheden van het individu jegens de wetgevende (en uitvoerende) macht, anderzijds is hij de bediener van deze macht wanneer verplichtingen afgedwongen moeten worden of van rechten en vrijheden misbruik wordt gemaakt. De bijdragen in deze jubileumbundel geven een brede inkijk in de ontwikkelingen rondom het functioneren van de rechter in ons staatsbestel en op welke wijze kan worden verzekerd dat dat functioneren toekomstbestendig is.

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