European Citizenship at the Crossroads

This book examines the changing role played by the European Union and international standards on loss and acquisition of nationality. It provides a comparative analysis of EU Member States regulations, administrative practices, court rulings and statistical data on questions related to loss of nationality and European citizenship. It assesses the multifaceted repercussions of the supranational venues of judicial and legal accountability over states autonomy and competences at times of deciding who is and who is not a citizen. The following questions are examined: to what the extent do EU Member States still hold the exclusive competence over domestic decisions in nationality matters? How do international and European legal principles and standards, as well as case-law by European courts progressively affect their margin of manoeuvre at times of deciding who is and who is not a ‘citizen’? What are the repercussions of their obligations in safeguarding citizenship of the Union? List of contents Preface 
   Gerard-René de Groot and Sergio Carrera Nuñez
About the Authors 
List of Tables and Figures 

Chapter 1 
Introduction: European Citizenship at a Crossroads
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez and Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 2 
Survey on Rules on Loss of Nationality in International
Treaties and Case Law
   Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 3 
A Comparative Analysis of Regulations on Involuntary
Loss of Nationality in the European Union
   Gerard-René de Groot and Maarten Peter Vink
Chapter 4
Reflections on Quasi-Loss of Nationality from
Comparative, International and European Perspectives
   Gerard-René de Groot and Patrick Wautelet
Chapter 5 
Mapping Statistics on Loss of Nationality in the EU:
A New Online Database
Chapter 6
Loss of Nationality in the Nordic Countries 185
   Eva Ersbøll
Chapter 7 
Deprivation of Citizenship:
The Latvian Example and EU Perspective
   Kristine Kruma
Chapter 8 
Is it Possible to Lose the Hungarian Nationality?
   Judit Tóth
Chapter 9 
Iberian Nationality Legislation and Sephardic Jews:
‘With due regard to European law’?
   Hans Ulrich Jessurun d’Oliveira
Chapter 10 
Attribution of Spanish Nationality to Children Born in Spain with the
Purpose of Avoiding Situations of Statelessness at Birth.
   Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez and Guayasén
   Marrero González
Chapter 11 
How Much Does EU Citizenship Cost? The Maltese Citizenship-for-Sale
Affair: A Breakthrough for Sincere Cooperation in Citizenship of the Union?
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez PART III
A collection of judgements, pending cases and caselaw notes 1. AUSTRIA
Gerard-René de Groot
1.1. CASE 1: An Austrian husband of Macedonian origin 
1.1.1. Text of the judgement 
1.1.2. Case Note 
1.2. CASE 2: An Austrian wife of Nigerian origin 
1.2.1. Text of the judgement 
1.2.2. Case Note 
1.3. CASE 3: An Austrian husband of Turkish origin 
1.3.1. Text of the judgement 
1.3.2. Case Note  2. BELGIUM
   Patrick Wautelet
2.1. CASE 4: Two Belgian children born in China 
2.1.1. Text of the judgement 
2.1.2. Case Note  3. CYPRUS
   Nicoletta Charalambidou
3.1. CASE 5 
3.1.1. Text of the judgement 
3.1.2. Case Note  4. DENMARK
   Eva Ersbøll
4.1.1. Case description  5. GERMANY
   Gerard-René de Groot
5.1. CASE 6: The fate of Janko Rottmann 
5.1.1. Text of the judgement 
5.1.2. Case Note 
5.2. CASE 7: A German with Turkish roots 
5.2.1. Text of the judgement 
5.2.2. Case Note  6. LATVIA
   Kristine Kruma
6.1. CASE 8: A Latvian with a Russian background 
6.1.1. Text of the judgement: Court of First Instance 
6.1.2. Text of the judgement: Latvian Supreme Court 
6.1.3. Case Note  7. MALTA
   Daniela DeBono
7.1. CASE 9 
7.1.1. Text of the judgements: First Hall of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.2. Text of the judgements: Court of Appeals of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.3. Case Note  8. THE NETHERLANDS
   Ngo Chun Luk
8.1. Combined Case Note 
8.2. CASE 10: Parental error 
8.3. CASE 11: Syrian, not Iraqi 
8.4. CASE 12: Unintentional fraud 
8.5. CASE 13: Fictitious parentage 
8.6. CASE 14: Bigamous Egyptian 
8.7. CASE 15: Hidden criminal antecedents 
8.8. CASE 16: Identity fraud in Limburg 
8.9. Final Remarks 
8.10. Text of Judgments  9. THE NETHERLANDS
   Gerard-René de Groot
9.1. PENDING CASE 2: Dutch twins? 
9.1.1. Case description  10. SPAIN
   Guayasén Marrero González
10.1. CASE 17: Temporary residence permit on the grounds of exceptional circumstances (social         integration)
10.1.1. Text of the judgement 
10.1.2. Case Note  11. UNITED KINGDOM
11.1. PENDING CASE 3: A British Vietnamese involved in terrorism? 
11.1.1. Appeal: Court of Appeal of England and Wales 
11.1.2. Final appeal: Supreme Court – case description  12. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
   Gerard-René de Groot
12.1. PENDING CASE 4: A Maltese husband of Egyptian origin 
12.1.1. Case description 

Guidelines Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (ILEC Guidelines 2015) 
Gerard-René de Groot, Maarten Peter Vink and Patrick Wautelet REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Forthcoming Publications


Humanitarian Intervention as an Exception to the Prohibition on the Use of Force
Petra Zvržina

The core objective of the United Nations is to strive towards peace and security in international community. Recent flows of refugees to Europe have led to wonder how the international community could help both people facing abuses of their fundamental rights, and also European countries to which they are immigrating. However, since 1945, the use of force has been prohibited with no mention of interventions for humanitarian purposes. The question remains, when unauthorised humanitarian intervention as a last resort measure can be justified in a world of jus cogens prohibition of the use of force.   In public international law, new rules of customary law emerge through sufficient State practice and opinio juris, therefore it might turn out that humanitarian interventions will be justified under customary international law. Always when concerned with the protection of human rights, specific criteria shall be drawn in order to prevent abuses. The present book is a master thesis, which is going to answer the question of justifiability of the use of force for humanitarian purposes without the United Nations Security Council approval, drawn from Iraq and Kosovo cases, and evolving customary international law.   “If humanitarian intervention is indeed an unacceptable assault on sovereignty, how should we respond to a Rwanda, to a Srebrenica – to gross and systematic violations of human rights that offend every precept of our common humanity?” (Kofi Annan, Millennium Report of Secretary-General of the United Nations, 2000)


Thoughts on Article 15 of the European Convention on Human Rights
P. Kempees

Article 15 of the European Convention on Human Rights allows States, in time of “war or other public emergency threatening the life of the nation”, to take measures derogating from their obligations to protect human rights. This brief monograph by a member of the Registry of the European Court of Human Rights offers a personal view on the possibilities of derogation in practice. Its aim is to inform discussion on the relevance today of Article 15 as part of the Convention system. Its main focus is on armed conflict both international and non-international and on terrorism. It makes proposals to breathe new life into Article 15.


Voorstel van Wet strekkende tot de invoering van een herstelgerichte afdoening via bemiddeling in strafzaken in het Wetboek van Strafvordering, inclusief Memorie van Toelichting
John Blad, Jacques Claessen, Gert Jan Slump, Anneke van Hoek, Theo de Roos

In deze publicatie treft u een proeve van wetgeving aan, opgesteld op inititatief van en door burgers. Het is een wetsvoorstel, inclusief Memorie van Toelichting, waartoe wij het initiatief hebben genomen in het kader van de aanstaande invoering van een nieuw Wetboek van Strafvordering. Het voorstel van wet is geschreven door een initiatiefgroep (Universiteit Maastricht en Restorative Justice Nederland) in samenwerking met een denktank van ruim tachtig strafrecht- en herstelrechtprofessionals. Het wetsvoorstel is op 21 feburari 2017 overhandigd aan de leden van de vaste kamercommissie voor Veiligheid en Justitie van de Tweede Kamer. Met dit voorstel van wet kan het formele wetgevingproces wat ons betreft echt van start. De mogelijkeheid om zaken in het strafrecht op een herstelgerichte manier af te doen is immers geen luxe, maar noodzaak.

Recent Publications


Aperçu de la Jurisprudence de la Cour Européenne des droits de l’homme 2016
Registry of ECHR

Chaque année, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme rend de multiples arrêts et un nombre plus élevé encore de décisions, alimentant ainsi sa jurisprudence déjà fort impressionnante. Une personne extérieure à la Cour peut dès lors avoir du mal à déterminer quelles sont les affaires qui marquent un tournant ou qui traitent de nouvelles questions. Un aspect du travail de la Cour auquel une attention croissante est accordée consiste donc à repérer ces affaires et à les diffuser dans un format pratique et accessible.   L’objet de cette série, Aperçu de la jurisprudence, disponible en français et en anglais, est de répondre à ce besoin en se concentrant sur les affaires les plus importantes qui sont traitées chaque année par la Cour. Celles-ci sont sélectionnées par la Direction du jurisconsulte de la Cour en fonction de leur intérêt jurisprudentiel. Outre les affaires choisies pour publication dans le Recueil des arrêts et décisions de la Cour, ce corpus contient des affaires qui soulèvent des questions d’intérêt général, qui posent de nouveaux principes ou qui développent ou précisent la jurisprudence. Il s’agit de faire ressortir les aspects saillants de telle ou telle affaire, pour permettre au lecteur d’en saisir la portée jurisprudentielle.


Overview of the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights
Registry of ECHR

Every year, the European Court of Human Rights delivers a large number of judgments and an even greater number of decisions, thus adding to its already formidable body of case-law. This can make it difficult for people outside the Court to know which cases break new ground or address new issues. An increasingly important aspect of the Court’s work has thus become to identify such cases and to disseminate them in a convenient and accessible format. The annual Overview series, available in English and French, seeks to respond to that need by focusing on the most important cases the Court deals with each year. All the cases are selected by the Court’s Jurisconsult’s Directorate on the basis of their jurisprudential interest. In addition to the cases chosen for publication in the Court’s Reports of Judgments and Decisions, they include a number of other cases that raise issues of general interest, establish new principles, or develop or clarify the case-law. The approach has been to draw attention to the salient points, allowing the reader to appreciate the jurisprudential significance of a particular case.


Monitor Wsnp
S.L. Peters & L. Combrink-Kuiters

De Raad voor Rechtsbijstand heeft een aantal wettelijke taken in het kader van de Wet schuldsanering natuurlijke personen (Wsnp). Bureau Wsnp in ’s-Hertogenbosch is verantwoordelijk voor de uitvoering van deze taken. In augustus 2005 verscheen de eerste Wsnp-monitor. Dit jaarlijks uit te brengen instrument heeft als doel de effectiviteit van de Wsnp te monitoren. Deze dertiende meting van de Wsnp-monitor vormt een actualisering van de in 2016 verschenen twaalfde meting. 

webdesign by Robiz.nl Webdesign & Webhosting Oisterwijk