Highlights

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European Citizenship at the Crossroads


This book examines the changing role played by the European Union and international standards on loss and acquisition of nationality. It provides a comparative analysis of EU Member States regulations, administrative practices, court rulings and statistical data on questions related to loss of nationality and European citizenship. It assesses the multifaceted repercussions of the supranational venues of judicial and legal accountability over states autonomy and competences at times of deciding who is and who is not a citizen. The following questions are examined: to what the extent do EU Member States still hold the exclusive competence over domestic decisions in nationality matters? How do international and European legal principles and standards, as well as case-law by European courts progressively affect their margin of manoeuvre at times of deciding who is and who is not a ‘citizen’? What are the repercussions of their obligations in safeguarding citizenship of the Union? List of contents Preface 
   Gerard-René de Groot and Sergio Carrera Nuñez
About the Authors 
Abbreviations 
List of Tables and Figures 
Foreword 

   Zeta Georgiadou PART I: LOSS AND QUASI-LOSS OF NATIONALITY IN THE EU
Chapter 1 
Introduction: European Citizenship at a Crossroads
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez and Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 2 
Survey on Rules on Loss of Nationality in International
Treaties and Case Law
   Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 3 
A Comparative Analysis of Regulations on Involuntary
Loss of Nationality in the European Union
   Gerard-René de Groot and Maarten Peter Vink
Chapter 4
Reflections on Quasi-Loss of Nationality from
Comparative, International and European Perspectives
   Gerard-René de Groot and Patrick Wautelet
Chapter 5 
Mapping Statistics on Loss of Nationality in the EU:
A New Online Database
   Maarten Peter Vink and Ngo Chun Luk PART II: NATIONAL PERSPECTIVES AND DEVELOPMENTS
Chapter 6
Loss of Nationality in the Nordic Countries 185
   Eva Ersbøll
Chapter 7 
Deprivation of Citizenship:
The Latvian Example and EU Perspective
   Kristine Kruma
Chapter 8 
Is it Possible to Lose the Hungarian Nationality?
   Judit Tóth
Chapter 9 
Iberian Nationality Legislation and Sephardic Jews:
‘With due regard to European law’?
   Hans Ulrich Jessurun d’Oliveira
Chapter 10 
Attribution of Spanish Nationality to Children Born in Spain with the
Purpose of Avoiding Situations of Statelessness at Birth.
   Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez and Guayasén
   Marrero González
Chapter 11 
How Much Does EU Citizenship Cost? The Maltese Citizenship-for-Sale
Affair: A Breakthrough for Sincere Cooperation in Citizenship of the Union?
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez PART III
ROTTMANN IN THE COURTS OF THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION:
A collection of judgements, pending cases and caselaw notes 1. AUSTRIA
Gerard-René de Groot
1.1. CASE 1: An Austrian husband of Macedonian origin 
1.1.1. Text of the judgement 
1.1.2. Case Note 
1.2. CASE 2: An Austrian wife of Nigerian origin 
1.2.1. Text of the judgement 
1.2.2. Case Note 
1.3. CASE 3: An Austrian husband of Turkish origin 
1.3.1. Text of the judgement 
1.3.2. Case Note  2. BELGIUM
   Patrick Wautelet
2.1. CASE 4: Two Belgian children born in China 
2.1.1. Text of the judgement 
2.1.2. Case Note  3. CYPRUS
   Nicoletta Charalambidou
3.1. CASE 5 
3.1.1. Text of the judgement 
3.1.2. Case Note  4. DENMARK
   Eva Ersbøll
4.1. PENDING CASE 
4.1.1. Case description  5. GERMANY
   Gerard-René de Groot
5.1. CASE 6: The fate of Janko Rottmann 
5.1.1. Text of the judgement 
5.1.2. Case Note 
5.2. CASE 7: A German with Turkish roots 
5.2.1. Text of the judgement 
5.2.2. Case Note  6. LATVIA
   Kristine Kruma
6.1. CASE 8: A Latvian with a Russian background 
6.1.1. Text of the judgement: Court of First Instance 
6.1.2. Text of the judgement: Latvian Supreme Court 
6.1.3. Case Note  7. MALTA
   Daniela DeBono
7.1. CASE 9 
7.1.1. Text of the judgements: First Hall of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.2. Text of the judgements: Court of Appeals of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.3. Case Note  8. THE NETHERLANDS
   Ngo Chun Luk
8.1. Combined Case Note 
8.2. CASE 10: Parental error 
8.3. CASE 11: Syrian, not Iraqi 
8.4. CASE 12: Unintentional fraud 
8.5. CASE 13: Fictitious parentage 
8.6. CASE 14: Bigamous Egyptian 
8.7. CASE 15: Hidden criminal antecedents 
8.8. CASE 16: Identity fraud in Limburg 
8.9. Final Remarks 
8.10. Text of Judgments  9. THE NETHERLANDS
   Gerard-René de Groot
9.1. PENDING CASE 2: Dutch twins? 
9.1.1. Case description  10. SPAIN
   Guayasén Marrero González
10.1. CASE 17: Temporary residence permit on the grounds of exceptional circumstances (social         integration)
10.1.1. Text of the judgement 
10.1.2. Case Note  11. UNITED KINGDOM
11.1. PENDING CASE 3: A British Vietnamese involved in terrorism? 
11.1.1. Appeal: Court of Appeal of England and Wales 
11.1.2. Final appeal: Supreme Court – case description  12. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
   Gerard-René de Groot
12.1. PENDING CASE 4: A Maltese husband of Egyptian origin 
12.1.1. Case description 
12.1.2. Comments 

ANNEX 1.
Guidelines Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (ILEC Guidelines 2015) 
Gerard-René de Groot, Maarten Peter Vink and Patrick Wautelet REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 
 

Forthcoming Publications

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For Justice and Mercy
Ryan van Eijk, Gerard Loman, Theo W.A. de Wit (Eds.)

Publications on an international level and addressing prison chaplaincy from different (continental and disciplinary) angles are rare. Most publications regarding prison chaplaincy are monographies by theologians or prison chaplains, or books from (ex-)inmates witnessing their personal conversion.   For Justice and Mercy offers international texts on the positioning of prison chaplaincy and examples from the praxis, as well as from several contexts and concepts. However, the focus is not exclusively on global perspectives. But the publication is certainly international for its contributors are academics or experienced prison chaplains from all continents who are offering their research and reflections from different scientific disciplines on aspects which are of interest for prison chaplaincy in general. Most articles are written from the catholic point of view. The reason is that the initiative for this publication was taken by the executive board of the International Commission of Catholic Pastoral Care (ICCPPC) to pay extra attention to its 65 years existence, and to the Year of Mercy.

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ZOEKEN IN COMPUTERS NAAR NEDERLANDS EN BELGISCH RECHT
Bert-Jaap Koops, Charlotte Conings, Frank Verbruggen

Op het vlak van strafvorderlijk onderzoek in computers is veel in beweging. Het ICT-landschap is ingrijpend aan het veranderen, met mobiele computers en smartphones, en de cloud als opslagplaats van computergegevens. In Nederland is er het wetsvoorstel Computercriminaliteit III en de modernisering van het Wetboek van Strafvordering. In België is een wetsontwerp aangekondigd om enkele IT-zoekingen concreter vorm te geven en van enkele ‘zware’ procedures een ‘lichtere versie’ te scheppen voor een Internetcontext. Er is eveneens een initiatief voor een nieuw Wetboek van Strafvordering dat geschikt zal moeten zijn voor de digitale, gemondialiseerde informatiemaatschappij.

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Stelselherzieningen
mr. S.S. Zoeteman

Met preadviezen van: mr. J.H. Meijer, mr. H.A. Oldenziel en mr. H.W. de Vos (allen ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu), mr. M.M. den Boer, mr. J.A. Janssen, mr. Y.L. Lont, mr. R. Buitenhuis, mr. M.J.P.C. Zeegers, mr. E. van Schooneveld en mr. M.T. Veldhuizen (allen ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport) en mr. R. Bekker

Recent Publications

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The Right To Reparations under The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC)
S. Kabalira

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court established and vested the Court with the power to decide on reparations to victims. The concept of reparations to victims remains a controversial topic in international criminal law.   Does the Statute explicitly create victims’ right to reparations? How and why have we to distinguish between reparations under Article 75 and victim assistance or support from the Trust Fund created by Article 79 of the Statute? Does the Statute or international law embody substantive law to be applied to reparations to victims?   From a procedural perspective other questions arise: Has the Statute or the Court developed procedural law that allows to balance the interests of parties to proceedings before a court whose mission is primarily criminal? Where a conflict of jurisdiction arises between the International Criminal Court and national courts, as regards reparations against a convicted person, how can the risk be dispelled? What kind of reparations may redress victims of the most serious international crimes, such as crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes? Does there exist an effective legal framework to facilitate the implementation of reparations orders issued by the Court?   This book endeavours to discuss the major legal issues arising from the introduction of the concept of reparations to victims in international criminal law. More particularly, the book describes challenges in implementing Article 75 of the Rome Statute and attempts to suggest legal solutions thereto.

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De behandeling van onderscheiden typen brandstichters
L. Dalhuisen, K. `t Lam, F. Koenraadt & L. Hagenauw

Onderzoek in verschillende Nederlandse forensisch psychiatrische centra laat zien dat drie groepen brandstichters bestaan, te weten zij die emoties afreageren, daders die tot brandstichting overgaan uit persoonlijke woede en doelbewuste brandstichters gericht op het nemen van wraak of het verkrijgen van hulp of aandacht. De overeenkomsten en verschillen tussen deze drie groepen dienen als aanknopingspunt voor een gedifferentieerd behandelprogramma. Die behandeling dient zich vooral te richten op (vuurgerelateerde) zaken zoals ongezonde interesse in vuur, gebrek aan sociale vaardigheden, emotieregulatie en coping en het zelfbeeld en zelfvertrouwen. Rekening houdend met de specifieke kenmerken van de drie subgroepen is een behandelprogramma beschreven voor brandstichters. In dit boek zijn werkwijzen beschreven die bruikbaar zijn in de spreekkamer van de therapeut en in de afdeling van de kliniek waar deze forensisch psychiatrische patiënten in behandeling zijn. Onderzoek en klinische praktijk hebben immers geleerd dat ook de behandeling van brandstichters maatwerk vraagt en dat een gedifferentieerde populatie brandstichters een gedifferentieerd aanbod aan behandeling vereist.

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Human Rights Obligations of Armed Non-State Actors in Non-International Armed Conflicts
N. Pushparajah

This book explores the human rights obligations of armed non-state actors in non-international armed conflicts from the existing sources. This book seriously challenges the Statecentric view of human rights by breaking the traditional perception of international human rights regime that applies only to State actors. This book shows the necessity in considering the capacity of de facto regimes of armed non-state actors to incur human rights obligations in order to protect individuals and groups, and regulate their daily lives in the control areas of these armed non-state actors. Further, this book proves the capacity of armed non-state actors for violating human rights as well as bearing human rights obligations in non-international armed conflicts. The degree of human rights obligations of armed non-state actors, especially regarding civil and political rights, as well as obligations towards some vulnerable groups, has been confirmed in this book. Nevertheless it is very difficult to impose human rights obligations on armed nonstate actors without relying on other international norms such as international humanitarian law and international criminal law in non-international armed conflicts since these bodies of law give more detailed provisions to regulate the specific issue. In addition, the success of the fulfilment of obligations in international norms by armed non-state actors mostly depends on their capacity, willingness and intentions, including the ideology of a specific group.

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