Highlights

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European Citizenship at the Crossroads


This book examines the changing role played by the European Union and international standards on loss and acquisition of nationality. It provides a comparative analysis of EU Member States regulations, administrative practices, court rulings and statistical data on questions related to loss of nationality and European citizenship. It assesses the multifaceted repercussions of the supranational venues of judicial and legal accountability over states autonomy and competences at times of deciding who is and who is not a citizen. The following questions are examined: to what the extent do EU Member States still hold the exclusive competence over domestic decisions in nationality matters? How do international and European legal principles and standards, as well as case-law by European courts progressively affect their margin of manoeuvre at times of deciding who is and who is not a ‘citizen’? What are the repercussions of their obligations in safeguarding citizenship of the Union? List of contents Preface 
   Gerard-René de Groot and Sergio Carrera Nuñez
About the Authors 
Abbreviations 
List of Tables and Figures 
Foreword 

   Zeta Georgiadou PART I: LOSS AND QUASI-LOSS OF NATIONALITY IN THE EU
Chapter 1 
Introduction: European Citizenship at a Crossroads
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez and Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 2 
Survey on Rules on Loss of Nationality in International
Treaties and Case Law
   Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 3 
A Comparative Analysis of Regulations on Involuntary
Loss of Nationality in the European Union
   Gerard-René de Groot and Maarten Peter Vink
Chapter 4
Reflections on Quasi-Loss of Nationality from
Comparative, International and European Perspectives
   Gerard-René de Groot and Patrick Wautelet
Chapter 5 
Mapping Statistics on Loss of Nationality in the EU:
A New Online Database
   Maarten Peter Vink and Ngo Chun Luk PART II: NATIONAL PERSPECTIVES AND DEVELOPMENTS
Chapter 6
Loss of Nationality in the Nordic Countries 185
   Eva Ersbøll
Chapter 7 
Deprivation of Citizenship:
The Latvian Example and EU Perspective
   Kristine Kruma
Chapter 8 
Is it Possible to Lose the Hungarian Nationality?
   Judit Tóth
Chapter 9 
Iberian Nationality Legislation and Sephardic Jews:
‘With due regard to European law’?
   Hans Ulrich Jessurun d’Oliveira
Chapter 10 
Attribution of Spanish Nationality to Children Born in Spain with the
Purpose of Avoiding Situations of Statelessness at Birth.
   Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez and Guayasén
   Marrero González
Chapter 11 
How Much Does EU Citizenship Cost? The Maltese Citizenship-for-Sale
Affair: A Breakthrough for Sincere Cooperation in Citizenship of the Union?
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez PART III
ROTTMANN IN THE COURTS OF THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION:
A collection of judgements, pending cases and caselaw notes 1. AUSTRIA
Gerard-René de Groot
1.1. CASE 1: An Austrian husband of Macedonian origin 
1.1.1. Text of the judgement 
1.1.2. Case Note 
1.2. CASE 2: An Austrian wife of Nigerian origin 
1.2.1. Text of the judgement 
1.2.2. Case Note 
1.3. CASE 3: An Austrian husband of Turkish origin 
1.3.1. Text of the judgement 
1.3.2. Case Note  2. BELGIUM
   Patrick Wautelet
2.1. CASE 4: Two Belgian children born in China 
2.1.1. Text of the judgement 
2.1.2. Case Note  3. CYPRUS
   Nicoletta Charalambidou
3.1. CASE 5 
3.1.1. Text of the judgement 
3.1.2. Case Note  4. DENMARK
   Eva Ersbøll
4.1. PENDING CASE 
4.1.1. Case description  5. GERMANY
   Gerard-René de Groot
5.1. CASE 6: The fate of Janko Rottmann 
5.1.1. Text of the judgement 
5.1.2. Case Note 
5.2. CASE 7: A German with Turkish roots 
5.2.1. Text of the judgement 
5.2.2. Case Note  6. LATVIA
   Kristine Kruma
6.1. CASE 8: A Latvian with a Russian background 
6.1.1. Text of the judgement: Court of First Instance 
6.1.2. Text of the judgement: Latvian Supreme Court 
6.1.3. Case Note  7. MALTA
   Daniela DeBono
7.1. CASE 9 
7.1.1. Text of the judgements: First Hall of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.2. Text of the judgements: Court of Appeals of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.3. Case Note  8. THE NETHERLANDS
   Ngo Chun Luk
8.1. Combined Case Note 
8.2. CASE 10: Parental error 
8.3. CASE 11: Syrian, not Iraqi 
8.4. CASE 12: Unintentional fraud 
8.5. CASE 13: Fictitious parentage 
8.6. CASE 14: Bigamous Egyptian 
8.7. CASE 15: Hidden criminal antecedents 
8.8. CASE 16: Identity fraud in Limburg 
8.9. Final Remarks 
8.10. Text of Judgments  9. THE NETHERLANDS
   Gerard-René de Groot
9.1. PENDING CASE 2: Dutch twins? 
9.1.1. Case description  10. SPAIN
   Guayasén Marrero González
10.1. CASE 17: Temporary residence permit on the grounds of exceptional circumstances (social         integration)
10.1.1. Text of the judgement 
10.1.2. Case Note  11. UNITED KINGDOM
11.1. PENDING CASE 3: A British Vietnamese involved in terrorism? 
11.1.1. Appeal: Court of Appeal of England and Wales 
11.1.2. Final appeal: Supreme Court – case description  12. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
   Gerard-René de Groot
12.1. PENDING CASE 4: A Maltese husband of Egyptian origin 
12.1.1. Case description 
12.1.2. Comments 

ANNEX 1.
Guidelines Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (ILEC Guidelines 2015) 
Gerard-René de Groot, Maarten Peter Vink and Patrick Wautelet REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 
 

Forthcoming Publications

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Thoughts on Article 15 of the European Convention on Human Rights
P. Kempees

Article 15 of the European Convention on Human Rights allows States, in time of “war or other public emergency threatening the life of the nation”, to take measures derogating from their obligations to protect human rights. This brief monograph by a member of the Registry of the European Court of Human Rights offers a personal view on the possibilities of derogation in practice. Its aim is to inform discussion on the relevance today of Article 15 as part of the Convention system. Its main focus is on armed conflict both international and non-international and on terrorism. It makes proposals to breathe new life into Article 15.

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The World’s Stateless
Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion

International law protects the right of every child to acquire a nationality. Yet, childhood statelessness pervades all regions of the world. At least a third of the 15 million people who face life without a nationality today, are children. And, every ten minutes, another child is born stateless. The disconnect between the recognition of nationality as a fundamental child right and the reality of childhood statelessness presents a massive challenge, but also opens up a wealth of opportunities. Childhood statelessness is entirely preventable. It is never in a child’s best interests to be stateless, nor is it ever a child’s “fault” if they are left without nationality. We are proud to devote this edition of our flagship report, The World’s Stateless 2017, to exploring the urgency of and opportunities for addressing childhood statelessness. Over 50 experts and organisations have contributed material – essays, interviews, photographs and more. Collectively, they deal with a multitude of different dimensions of childhood statelessness, with chapters exploring the right to a nationality, challenges in the context of migration and displacement, the significance of the Sustainable Development Agenda, the mechanics of safeguards against statelessness for children, and litigation, legal assistance and other forms of moblisation as strategies to tackle childhood statelessness. As with every edition of The World’s Stateless, this publication also offers a more general overview of the state of statelessness globally in 2017. The Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion is an independent non-profit organisation, committed to ending statelessness and disenfranchisement through the promotion of human rights, participation and inclusion. For more information about our work, please visit www.institutesi.org.

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Corruption and Human Rights
André T. D. Figueiredo

Some scholars and even human rights monitoring bodies have started to make the connection between corruption and human rights violations. When asked about this connection, most people easily picture a country ruled by a dictator who steals public money to support his luxury life while the population suffers from the lack of essential public services, such as healthcare and education. The connection in itself is appealing. Nonetheless, sometimes this connection is made without the proper concern for fully developing the argument and its consequences. The purpose of this study is to go beyond this appealing link and to clarify the argument that making an explicit link with human rights has indeed added value. Framing corruption as a human rights violation cannot be an end in itself, a pure exercise of relabeling the problem. This study aims to give a practical significance to the connection by addressing, in a non-exhaustive way, the practical value of framing corruption as a human rights violation and the possibilities in which international human rights law can be used to strengthen the fight against corruption. By doing so, this book also presents how UN human rights bodies are referring to corruption, and how they could contribute more to fighting this global problem. This book is an adapted version of the author's LL.M. thesis presented at Radboud University in June 2016,where he graduated cum laude after being the recipient of a scholarship.

Recent Publications

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Onze manier van straffen
Theo W.A. de Wit, Reijer J. de Vries, Niels den Toom (red.)

Elke samenleving kent de praktijk van het straffen, beginnend bij de straf als een voorzichtige pedagogische koestering om je kind iets bij te brengen tot aan de meest draconische straffen en de defi nitieve straf: de doodstraf. Maar er bestaat ook zoiets als een – altijd voorlopige – gedeelde manier van straffen. Geestelijk verzorgers in gevangenissen en andere inrichtingen van justitie staan vanwege hun werk dichtbij gedetineerde mensen. Zij maken ‘onze manier van straffen’ dus van nabij mee. Wat valt je dan op aan de wijze van straffen die wij als samenleving normaal of minstens acceptabel vinden? Onze manier van straffen bevat zes essays van geestelijk verzorgers werkzaam bij justitie, essays die voortkomen uit een learning community van geestelijk verzorgers. Onder begeleiding van prof. dr. Theo de Wit, stafl id van het Centrum voor Justitiepastoraat, daag den zij elkaar uit om scherp onder woorden te brengen wat onze strafmethoden inhouden, wat zij met mensen doet, en welke rol zij zelf spelen als onderdeel van dit strafsysteem. Wie de essays overziet, constateert dat hier zes auteurs aan het woord zijn, die vanuit een intiem en vaak langdurig contact met de detentiewerkelijkheid evenzovele dimensies van de gevangenisstraf als geleefde ervaring beschrijven. Ze gaan over het isolement waarin je als gedetineerde terecht komt, over vernedering als onlosmakelijk onderdeel van straf, over afhankelijkheid, over het jargon van de tbs, over levenslang, en over een vorm van vrijheid die je als gedetineerde toch houdt. De essays zijn geschreven vanuit een attitude die je nog het best kunt omschrijven als een combinatie van empathie, mededogen en realisme. De geestelijk verzorgers beschouwen zich als deel van het collectief waarnaar wordt gewezen in de uitdrukking ‘onze manier van straffen’. Tegelijkertijd achten zij het hun plicht en eisen zij ook het recht op, kritisch na te denken over ons strafsysteem, de evidenties die daarin worden meegenomen en die dag na dag worden gereproduceerd en overgedragen, alsmede hun eigen rol daarbij. Deze bundel is een uitgave van het Centrum voor Justitiepastoraat (CJP). Het CJP is een samenwerking tussen de Protestantste Theologische Universiteit en de Universiteit van Tilburg. Het centrum verricht wetenschappelijk onderzoek en biedt onderwijs op het terrein van het justitiepastoraat.

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Onderwijs in Nederlands-Indië
N.S. Efthymiou

Dit boek is een studie over een aspect van het constitutionele recht voor Nederlands-Indië, en wel over het onderwijs in Nederlands-Indië in de periode 1602-1942. Het boek geeft een beschrijving van dit aspect en beoogt het aspect te typeren. Om de beschrijving en de typering begrijpelijk te maken gaat aan de studie over onderwijs in Nederlands-Indië een korte behandeling vooraf van algemene kenmerken van constitutioneel recht voor Nederlands-Indië. N.S. Efthymiou is universitair docent staatsrecht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

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Digital Evidence Changing the Paradigm of Human Rights Protection
Salvatore di Cerbo

In a “digital world” like ours, vast Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
infrastructures are highways where run extensive flows of information, dictating the
rhythm of our day-to-day lives. Such a deep influence, close to be an addiction for us, turns
ICT an unquestioned feature of modern life. These premises well portrait the landscape in which the diverse spectrum of actors
committed to promote, defend and restore the human rights operate. Therefore, the risk is
to mistake the means with the ends; but, even if the subject of this work, Digital Evidence,
is technology-related, the purpose of the study is the goal to which it tends: human rights
and their protection. Moreover, the wide diffusion of “capturing devices” that allow the documentation of human
rights abuses throughout massive streams of data from diverse sources will raise new
needs: in primis a careful collection and interpretation of the most relevant ones, and then
the establishment of mechanisms to ensure the validity and reliability of newly acquired
information. The whole chain that connects all the required steps in order to turn digital data into
“digital legal evidence” relevant for the protection of human rights, represents a challenge
for human rights practitioners, as individual activists, as well as organizations. Every single
step is fundamental: collection, management, preservation, analysis and security of data,
along with an effective communication and strategic use of evidence. Twitter tweets, Facebook and Blogs posts, Instagram photos and Youtube videos, even
when considered too weak for a conviction to be founded on, can play an important
role outside of a courtroom, establishing the grounds for prosecution indictments or, in
general, creating awareness of human rights abuses. Consequently, new forms of human rights activism, like the so-called “hashtag activism”,
pass through social media and have the power to generate a real change at both legal and
awareness level. The risk to be avoided is to mortify this power using social media as a
shortcut to be politically active or socially trendy making a mere “clictivism”. Hence, the core of this work revolves around the pivotal question of legal sufficiency of
the digital means employed in recording human rights abuses and the consolidation of
standards and procedures regulating the admissibility of collected evidence in the court of
law. The purpose is to provide an answer from a tri-folded point of view. The U.S. legal system leads in the regulation of the requirements for digital evidence to be
admitted at trial; nonetheless, also International courts like ICC, ICTY and ICTR follow
rules and procedure for that purpose, based on authenticity, protection of privacy, chain
of possession and reliability of the electronic evidence. At the European level, instead, the
lack of a common legislation relevant to the admissibility of d-evidence at trial required a
comparative study of the respective provisions contained in many Europeans countries’
procedural law. For these three levels a special attention is reserved to the analysis
of the lifecycle of digital evidence, from the creation and use of digital digital human
rights documentation for immediate purpose to its later admission as evidence in legal
proceedings, as well as to the authentication issue. At the last stage a collection of the most relevant case law form the principal U.S. courts
and International courts is provided.

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