European Citizenship at the Crossroads

This book examines the changing role played by the European Union and international standards on loss and acquisition of nationality. It provides a comparative analysis of EU Member States regulations, administrative practices, court rulings and statistical data on questions related to loss of nationality and European citizenship. It assesses the multifaceted repercussions of the supranational venues of judicial and legal accountability over states autonomy and competences at times of deciding who is and who is not a citizen. The following questions are examined: to what the extent do EU Member States still hold the exclusive competence over domestic decisions in nationality matters? How do international and European legal principles and standards, as well as case-law by European courts progressively affect their margin of manoeuvre at times of deciding who is and who is not a ‘citizen’? What are the repercussions of their obligations in safeguarding citizenship of the Union? List of contents Preface 
   Gerard-René de Groot and Sergio Carrera Nuñez
About the Authors 
List of Tables and Figures 

Chapter 1 
Introduction: European Citizenship at a Crossroads
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez and Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 2 
Survey on Rules on Loss of Nationality in International
Treaties and Case Law
   Gerard-René de Groot
Chapter 3 
A Comparative Analysis of Regulations on Involuntary
Loss of Nationality in the European Union
   Gerard-René de Groot and Maarten Peter Vink
Chapter 4
Reflections on Quasi-Loss of Nationality from
Comparative, International and European Perspectives
   Gerard-René de Groot and Patrick Wautelet
Chapter 5 
Mapping Statistics on Loss of Nationality in the EU:
A New Online Database
Chapter 6
Loss of Nationality in the Nordic Countries 185
   Eva Ersbøll
Chapter 7 
Deprivation of Citizenship:
The Latvian Example and EU Perspective
   Kristine Kruma
Chapter 8 
Is it Possible to Lose the Hungarian Nationality?
   Judit Tóth
Chapter 9 
Iberian Nationality Legislation and Sephardic Jews:
‘With due regard to European law’?
   Hans Ulrich Jessurun d’Oliveira
Chapter 10 
Attribution of Spanish Nationality to Children Born in Spain with the
Purpose of Avoiding Situations of Statelessness at Birth.
   Aurelia Álvarez Rodríguez and Guayasén
   Marrero González
Chapter 11 
How Much Does EU Citizenship Cost? The Maltese Citizenship-for-Sale
Affair: A Breakthrough for Sincere Cooperation in Citizenship of the Union?
   Sergio Carrera Nuñez PART III
A collection of judgements, pending cases and caselaw notes 1. AUSTRIA
Gerard-René de Groot
1.1. CASE 1: An Austrian husband of Macedonian origin 
1.1.1. Text of the judgement 
1.1.2. Case Note 
1.2. CASE 2: An Austrian wife of Nigerian origin 
1.2.1. Text of the judgement 
1.2.2. Case Note 
1.3. CASE 3: An Austrian husband of Turkish origin 
1.3.1. Text of the judgement 
1.3.2. Case Note  2. BELGIUM
   Patrick Wautelet
2.1. CASE 4: Two Belgian children born in China 
2.1.1. Text of the judgement 
2.1.2. Case Note  3. CYPRUS
   Nicoletta Charalambidou
3.1. CASE 5 
3.1.1. Text of the judgement 
3.1.2. Case Note  4. DENMARK
   Eva Ersbøll
4.1.1. Case description  5. GERMANY
   Gerard-René de Groot
5.1. CASE 6: The fate of Janko Rottmann 
5.1.1. Text of the judgement 
5.1.2. Case Note 
5.2. CASE 7: A German with Turkish roots 
5.2.1. Text of the judgement 
5.2.2. Case Note  6. LATVIA
   Kristine Kruma
6.1. CASE 8: A Latvian with a Russian background 
6.1.1. Text of the judgement: Court of First Instance 
6.1.2. Text of the judgement: Latvian Supreme Court 
6.1.3. Case Note  7. MALTA
   Daniela DeBono
7.1. CASE 9 
7.1.1. Text of the judgements: First Hall of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.2. Text of the judgements: Court of Appeals of the Constitutional Court 
7.1.3. Case Note  8. THE NETHERLANDS
   Ngo Chun Luk
8.1. Combined Case Note 
8.2. CASE 10: Parental error 
8.3. CASE 11: Syrian, not Iraqi 
8.4. CASE 12: Unintentional fraud 
8.5. CASE 13: Fictitious parentage 
8.6. CASE 14: Bigamous Egyptian 
8.7. CASE 15: Hidden criminal antecedents 
8.8. CASE 16: Identity fraud in Limburg 
8.9. Final Remarks 
8.10. Text of Judgments  9. THE NETHERLANDS
   Gerard-René de Groot
9.1. PENDING CASE 2: Dutch twins? 
9.1.1. Case description  10. SPAIN
   Guayasén Marrero González
10.1. CASE 17: Temporary residence permit on the grounds of exceptional circumstances (social         integration)
10.1.1. Text of the judgement 
10.1.2. Case Note  11. UNITED KINGDOM
11.1. PENDING CASE 3: A British Vietnamese involved in terrorism? 
11.1.1. Appeal: Court of Appeal of England and Wales 
11.1.2. Final appeal: Supreme Court – case description  12. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
   Gerard-René de Groot
12.1. PENDING CASE 4: A Maltese husband of Egyptian origin 
12.1.1. Case description 

Guidelines Involuntary Loss of European Citizenship (ILEC Guidelines 2015) 
Gerard-René de Groot, Maarten Peter Vink and Patrick Wautelet REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Forthcoming Publications


The WTO Dispute Settlement System as a Legal Impediment to Iran’s Accession to the WTO
Siamak Amoozeidi

While Iran already applied in 1996 for accession to the World Trade Organization, it is not a WTO Member yet. There are several factors which have contributed to the prolongation of Iran’s accession process. They are mostly not related to trade issues. Important among these non-trade related factors is a legal impediment that originates from a conflict between Iran’s Constitution and the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding. It is this legal impediment, and how it can be overcome by using Iran’s domestic law mechanisms, which is the focus of this book.   Siamak Amoozeidi has been a legal advisor to Iran’s constitutional institutions and European companies. He has conducted research on human rights, crime prevention, controlling illicit drugs, judicial independence and public international law in Iran and, since 2008, on international economic, trade and investment law in the Netherlands.


Corruption and Human Rights
André T. D. Figueiredo

Some scholars and even human rights monitoring bodies have started to make the connection between corruption and human rights violations. When asked about this connection, most people easily picture a country ruled by a dictator who steals public money to support his luxury life while the population suffers from the lack of essential public services, such as healthcare and education. The connection in itself is appealing. Nonetheless, sometimes this connection is made without the proper concern for fully developing the argument and its consequences. The purpose of this study is to go beyond this appealing link and to clarify the argument that making an explicit link with human rights has indeed added value. Framing corruption as a human rights violation cannot be an end in itself, a pure exercise of relabeling the problem. This study aims to give a practical significance to the connection by addressing, in a non-exhaustive way, the practical value of framing corruption as a human rights violation and the possibilities in which international human rights law can be used to strengthen the fight against corruption. By doing so, this book also presents how UN human rights bodies are referring to corruption, and how they could contribute more to fighting this global problem. This book is an adapted version of the author's LL.M. thesis presented at Radboud University in June 2016,where he graduated cum laude after being the recipient of a scholarship.


De burger als ongelovige Thomas
Carinne Elion-Valter

Dit is een proefschrift over overtuigingskunst, recht en democratie. Het recht is een cultuur van overtuigen. Van advocaten richting rechter, eigen partijen en de media. Van de rechter richting partijen, advocaten, de hogere colleges, het publiek en de media. Ook bestuurders, ambtenaren, wethouders en ministers claimen geloofwaardigheid. Dit proefschrift belicht het begrip geloofwaardigheid vanuit de optiek van de burger. Welke taal moet hij willen verstaan? Wat zijn de factoren voor geloofwaardigheid en legitimiteit van het recht?   In deze tijd van participatie en democratische initiatieven als de G1000 herbezinnen we ons op het vertrouwen in de juridische en rechtsstatelijke waarborgen en instituties. Dan komt het er extra op aan dat we nadenken over geloofwaardigheid en legitimiteit. Wat is het verschil tussen Trump en Obama?   Het boek is de neerslag van een dialoog tussen literatuur en recht over deze vraag. Literaire teksten belichten de achtergronden van het recht. Het boek behandelt het thema van geloofwaardigheid aan de hand van de Bijbelpassage over ongelovige Thomas en zes latere teksten. Thomas was de apostel die pas geloofde in de opstanding van Jezus, nadat hij de kruiswonden had gezien. Ieder tijdperk leest echter zijn eigen boodschap in dit verhaal. Dit proefschrift bespreekt de avonturen van Thomas aan de hand van zes teksten uit de literatuurgeschiedenis. Aan de orde komen teksten van een 17e eeuwse jansenist Arnauld, van de 19e eeuwse Victor Hugo en van de 20e eeuwse Jean Cocteau, Maurice Blanchot, Julien Gracq en Michel Tournier. Thomas’ thematiek verandert van geloof naar rede, naar recht, naar waarheid, werkelijkheid, geschiedenis en liefde. Dit proefschrift toont de vitaliteit van een traditie.   Dit proefschrift geeft grotendeels onbekende teksten van bekende Franse auteurs een nieuw leven. Het wijst op de rol van erkenning voor geloofwaardigheid en legitimiteit, gaat in op verwante begrippen van wederkerigheid, oordeelsvermogen en reflexiviteit. De essays over de verschillende teksten verbinden geloofwaardigheid met thema’s als rationaliteit, gelijkwaardigheid, authenticiteit, nostalgie, mythe en identiteit. Het toont dat ook teksten zonder duidelijk juridisch thema relevantie hebben voor het denken over recht, bestuur en politiek.

Recent Publications


Aperçu de la Jurisprudence de la Cour Européenne des droits de l’homme 2016
Registry of ECHR

Chaque année, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme rend de multiples arrêts et un nombre plus élevé encore de décisions, alimentant ainsi sa jurisprudence déjà fort impressionnante. Une personne extérieure à la Cour peut dès lors avoir du mal à déterminer quelles sont les affaires qui marquent un tournant ou qui traitent de nouvelles questions. Un aspect du travail de la Cour auquel une attention croissante est accordée consiste donc à repérer ces affaires et à les diffuser dans un format pratique et accessible.   L’objet de cette série, Aperçu de la jurisprudence, disponible en français et en anglais, est de répondre à ce besoin en se concentrant sur les affaires les plus importantes qui sont traitées chaque année par la Cour. Celles-ci sont sélectionnées par la Direction du jurisconsulte de la Cour en fonction de leur intérêt jurisprudentiel. Outre les affaires choisies pour publication dans le Recueil des arrêts et décisions de la Cour, ce corpus contient des affaires qui soulèvent des questions d’intérêt général, qui posent de nouveaux principes ou qui développent ou précisent la jurisprudence. Il s’agit de faire ressortir les aspects saillants de telle ou telle affaire, pour permettre au lecteur d’en saisir la portée jurisprudentielle.


Overview of the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights
Registry of ECHR

Every year, the European Court of Human Rights delivers a large number of judgments and an even greater number of decisions, thus adding to its already formidable body of case-law. This can make it difficult for people outside the Court to know which cases break new ground or address new issues. An increasingly important aspect of the Court’s work has thus become to identify such cases and to disseminate them in a convenient and accessible format. The annual Overview series, available in English and French, seeks to respond to that need by focusing on the most important cases the Court deals with each year. All the cases are selected by the Court’s Jurisconsult’s Directorate on the basis of their jurisprudential interest. In addition to the cases chosen for publication in the Court’s Reports of Judgments and Decisions, they include a number of other cases that raise issues of general interest, establish new principles, or develop or clarify the case-law. The approach has been to draw attention to the salient points, allowing the reader to appreciate the jurisprudential significance of a particular case.


Monitor Wsnp
S.L. Peters & L. Combrink-Kuiters

De Raad voor Rechtsbijstand heeft een aantal wettelijke taken in het kader van de Wet schuldsanering natuurlijke personen (Wsnp). Bureau Wsnp in ’s-Hertogenbosch is verantwoordelijk voor de uitvoering van deze taken. In augustus 2005 verscheen de eerste Wsnp-monitor. Dit jaarlijks uit te brengen instrument heeft als doel de effectiviteit van de Wsnp te monitoren. Deze dertiende meting van de Wsnp-monitor vormt een actualisering van de in 2016 verschenen twaalfde meting. 

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