European Law

European Law

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Medische aansprakelijkheidMedische aansprakelijkheid
S. Heirman, E.C. Huijsmans & R. van den Munckhof (red.)

Het kenniscentrum Milieu en Gezondheid is een initiatief van het gerechtshof ’s-Hertogenbosch en de rechtbank Oost-Brabant. Doel van het kenniscentrum is om bij te dragen aan de kwaliteitsverbetering van de rechterlijke oordeelsvorming op het vlak van milieu en gezondheid. Door het verzamelen, beheren en delen van kennis over de strafrechtelijke, civielrechtelijke en bestuursrechtelijke aspecten hiervan, ondersteunt het kenniscentrum rechters en juridisch medewerkers in het hele land op dit vlak. Eén van de werkzaamheden van het kenniscentrum is het organiseren van themadagen voor de leden van de zittende magistratuur en de juridische ondersteuning van alle gerechten. Op deze themadagen wordt steeds een onderwerp op het gebied van milieu en gezondheid nader belicht. Op vrijdag 8 april 2016 organiseerde het kenniscentrum een themadag over het onderwerp medische aansprakelijkheid, in samenwerking met het Studiecentrum Rechtspleging (SSR). In dit kennisdocument zijn bijdragen van een aantal sprekers en deelnemers van die themadag gebundeld. De auteurs in deze bundel:                  Prof. dr. R.J. van der Gaag Prof. mr. A.C. Hendriks Prof. mr. dr. A.R. Mackor Prof. mr J. Legemaate Mr. dr. R.P. Wijne Mr. P.M.J. Eken-de Vos Mr. P.J. van Eekeren Mr. drs. E.C. Huijsmans Mr. R. van den Munckhof

Children’s Rights in a Digital Environment and European Union LawChildren’s Rights in a Digital Environment and European Union Law
J. Auer

Being online has become part of the daily routine for the most of us, particularly for young people. Children are growing up in a fast-paced technological environment, in which the new Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) such as smartphones or tablets provide limitless internet access and with that a limitless communication. The internet changes the way children interact, communicate, play and learn and in this context, it offers a broad range of opportunities. However, given that the dissemination of personal data as well as of violent or illegal content has been facilitated, the online environment also entails new risks to which children are exposed. With the increasing children’s internet use, the anxiety that children are particularly vulnerable to those risks grows and raises questions about how policy makers, the public and parents may effectively protect children online by balancing opportunities and risks. The aim of this book is to analyse the current legal framework with regard to the protection of the children’s rights in a digital environment. It examines which legal provisions apply to the risks a child may encounter when using the internet and in particular, which instruments have been implemented to prevent child pornography, grooming and the violations of personal data protection rights. It is intended to give an overview of the existing legal instruments on an international and a European Union level, with focus on the European Union legislation and the recent developments in the case law of the European Court of Justice.

A Comparative Study of Cybercrime in Criminal LawA Comparative Study of Cybercrime in Criminal Law
Q. Wang

The development of information technology provides new opportunities for crimes. Firstly, it facilitates traditional crimes such as fraud, and secondly, it breeds new crimes such as hacking. The traditional crimes facilitated by information technology and the new crimes bred by it are the so-called cybercrime in this book. To regulate cybercrime, legal regimes have developed countermeasures in the field of criminal law at different levels. At the national level, China, the United States, England and Singapore have all undergone reforms to adapt their criminal law. At the international level, the Council of Europe has drafted the Convention on Cybercrime and opened it for signatures. However, the still commonly committed cybercrime, such as DDoS attacks and online fraud, indicates the insufficiency of these countermeasures. In this background, this book intends to answer the research question: how can the criminal law be adapted to regulate cybercrime? By using doctrinal research and comparative study as the main methods, this book firstly explores and analyses the approaches of cybercrime legislations in the selected five legal regimes both in the past and in the present, and secondly, compares the different approaches and concludes with respect to the following aspects:   Aspect 1: Do we need a cyber-specific legislation to regulate cybercrime?   Aspect 2: If we do need a specific legislation, what approaches are more systematic for it?   Aspect 3: What principles are sufficient and appropriate to determine jurisdiction over cybercrime?   Aspect 4: What is the function of the Convention on Cybercrime in shaping appropriate legislation against cybercrime?

 Digital Evidence Changing the Paradigm of Human Rights Protection Digital Evidence Changing the Paradigm of Human Rights Protection
Salvatore di Cerbo

In a “digital world” like ours, vast Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
infrastructures are highways where run extensive flows of information, dictating the
rhythm of our day-to-day lives. Such a deep influence, close to be an addiction for us, turns
ICT an unquestioned feature of modern life. These premises well portrait the landscape in which the diverse spectrum of actors
committed to promote, defend and restore the human rights operate. Therefore, the risk is
to mistake the means with the ends; but, even if the subject of this work, Digital Evidence,
is technology-related, the purpose of the study is the goal to which it tends: human rights
and their protection. Moreover, the wide diffusion of “capturing devices” that allow the documentation of human
rights abuses throughout massive streams of data from diverse sources will raise new
needs: in primis a careful collection and interpretation of the most relevant ones, and then
the establishment of mechanisms to ensure the validity and reliability of newly acquired
information. The whole chain that connects all the required steps in order to turn digital data into
“digital legal evidence” relevant for the protection of human rights, represents a challenge
for human rights practitioners, as individual activists, as well as organizations. Every single
step is fundamental: collection, management, preservation, analysis and security of data,
along with an effective communication and strategic use of evidence. Twitter tweets, Facebook and Blogs posts, Instagram photos and Youtube videos, even
when considered too weak for a conviction to be founded on, can play an important
role outside of a courtroom, establishing the grounds for prosecution indictments or, in
general, creating awareness of human rights abuses. Consequently, new forms of human rights activism, like the so-called “hashtag activism”,
pass through social media and have the power to generate a real change at both legal and
awareness level. The risk to be avoided is to mortify this power using social media as a
shortcut to be politically active or socially trendy making a mere “clictivism”. Hence, the core of this work revolves around the pivotal question of legal sufficiency of
the digital means employed in recording human rights abuses and the consolidation of
standards and procedures regulating the admissibility of collected evidence in the court of
law. The purpose is to provide an answer from a tri-folded point of view. The U.S. legal system leads in the regulation of the requirements for digital evidence to be
admitted at trial; nonetheless, also International courts like ICC, ICTY and ICTR follow
rules and procedure for that purpose, based on authenticity, protection of privacy, chain
of possession and reliability of the electronic evidence. At the European level, instead, the
lack of a common legislation relevant to the admissibility of d-evidence at trial required a
comparative study of the respective provisions contained in many Europeans countries’
procedural law. For these three levels a special attention is reserved to the analysis
of the lifecycle of digital evidence, from the creation and use of digital digital human
rights documentation for immediate purpose to its later admission as evidence in legal
proceedings, as well as to the authentication issue. At the last stage a collection of the most relevant case law form the principal U.S. courts
and International courts is provided.

Monitor Gesubsidieerde Rechtsbijstand 2015Monitor Gesubsidieerde Rechtsbijstand 2015
S.L. Peters, M. van Gammeren-Zoeteweij & L. Combrink-Kuiters

Toegang tot het recht is een belangrijke pijler voor een goed functionerende rechtstaat. De Raad voor Rechtsbijstand maakt zich sterk voor het belang van burgers als zij tegen juridische problemen aanlopen. Dat doet de Raad op basis van de Wet op de Rechtsbijstand. De Raad wijst rechtzoekenden de weg, bevordert een goede toegang tot het recht en stimuleert goede kwaliteit van de rechtsbijstand. Ook fungeert de Raad als kenniscentrum op het gebied van de gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand. Hierbij is de Monitor Gesubsidieerde Rechtsbijstand (MGR) een belangrijk instrument. Elk jaar publiceert de Raad voor Rechtsbijstand deze monitor om te beschrijven hoe de toegang tot, de vraag naar en het aanbod van gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand zich ontwikkelen. Door periodiek op een uniforme wijze informatie te verzamelen over een beperkt aantal indicatoren wordt inzicht geboden in trends door de jaren heen. Om tevens inzicht te bieden in de effecten van specifieke beleids-of wetswijzigingen wordt ook verslag gedaan van aanvullende onderzoeken.

Solving StatelessnessSolving Statelessness
Laura Van Waas & Melanie Khanna (eds)

Interest in statelessness has been steadily increasing since the late 1990s – within academia, among governments, at the UN and among civil society organisations. Research projects, mapping studies and doctrinal discussions have helped to clarify the challenges faced and our understanding of what is at stake. This has led to a fresh sense of purpose in addressing the issue and there is now a growing international movement engaged in finding solutions, spurred on by the UNHCR-led #IBelong Campaign to End Statelessness by 2024. Making meaningful progress towards this goal demands a new and more ambitious approach, one that moves beyond stocktaking to inspire solutions. As Volker Türk outlines in his introduction to this ground-breaking publication: “The global debates have moved beyond the need to explain the problem and its causes and consequences. The time has come to accelerate the momentum to implement durable solutions effectively.” The essays which have been collected in this edited volume all approach statelessness from a solutions perspective, looking at what is being done, and what more can be done, to address the issue. The first part of the book has a thematic focus, exploring perspectives, tools and techniques for solving statelessness which are relevant across different countries and regions. Chapters in the second part each have a regional focus, exploring region-specific challenges, developments and innovations set against the backdrop of the broader context of a global campaign to solve statelessness. With contributions from both scholars and practitioners, the book is likely to be of interest to anyone engaged in studying or implementing solutions for statelessness, including researchers, government policy-makers, staff of international or regional inter-governmental bodies and UN agencies, grass-roots and international civil society organisations, legal practitioners and advanced-level students.

Civis europaeus sum?Civis europaeus sum?
Guayasén Marrero González

Civis europaeus sum? Am I a citizen of the Union? This question, which is the cornerstone of this thesis, is also the question that people affected by an eventual State succession within an EU Member State need an answer to. The link between the nationality of an EU Member State and citizenship of the Union is, as it stands now, unbreakable. One cannot claim the enjoyment of the latter without holding the nationality of an EU Member State. Thus, those who, due to the operation of the State succession and the rules enacted in that context regarding nationality, lose the nationality of the predecessor-EU Member State cannot invoke “civis europaeus sum”. From the outset, individuals who lose the nationality of an EU Member State would lose EU citizenship and the rights attached to it. However, whilst EU citizenship is still not autonomous from Member State nationality, certain rights associated to the residence in both the potential newly independent States and the EU Member States can be frozen as an interim solution until such times as the former has completed the EU accession process.

Trust on the lineTrust on the line
Esther Keymolen

Governments, companies, and citizens all think trust is important. Especially today, in the networked era, where we make use of all sorts of e-services and increasingly interact and buy online, trust has become a necessary condition for society to thrive. But what do we mean when we talk about trust and how does the rise of the Internet transform the functioning of trust? This books starts off with a thorough conceptual analysis of trust, drawing on insights from -amongst othersphilosophy and sociology to sharpen our understanding of the topic. The book explains how the arrival of large systems – such as the internet- has changed the character of trust which today is no longer based on interpersonal interactions but has become completely mediated by technologies. Based on the layered building plan of the Internet itself, a new conceptual lens called 4 Cs is developed to analyse and understand trust in the networked era. The 4Cs refer to the 4 layers which all have to be taken into account to assess trust online, namely: context,code, codification, and curation. The 4cs bring together the firsthand experiences of the user (context), the sort of technology that is being used (code), the legal implication (codification) and business interests (curation) in order to get a clear picture of the trust issues that may arise. In the final part of the book some real-life cases are discussed (digital hotel keys, Airbnb, online personalization) to illustrate how trust –analysed through the 4 Cs lens- might flourish or be challenged in our current networked era.

Stelselherzieningen Stelselherzieningen
mr. S.S. Zoeteman

Met preadviezen van: mr. J.H. Meijer, mr. H.A. Oldenziel en mr. H.W. de Vos (allen ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu), mr. M.M. den Boer, mr. J.A. Janssen, mr. Y.L. Lont, mr. R. Buitenhuis, mr. M.J.P.C. Zeegers, mr. E. van Schooneveld en mr. M.T. Veldhuizen (allen ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport) en mr. R. Bekker

Sociale MarkteconomieSociale Markteconomie
R. Slegers

Het begrip sociale markteconomie is in 1946 door Alfred Müller-Armack geïntroduceerd en heeft zijn beslag gekregen in artikel 3 lid 3 van het Verdrag betreffende de Europese Unie dat in 2009 in werking is getreden. Op grond van het artikel dient een sociale markteconomie mede de basis te vormen voor de duurzame ontwikkeling van Europa.  Dit onderzoek beantwoordt de vraag in hoeverre het concept sociale markteconomie als ordeningsprincipe (nog) een toekomst heeft in de Europese praktijk. Om tot de beantwoording van deze vraag te kunnen komen wordt allereerst uitgebreid stilgestaan bij het begrip socialemarkteconomie zelf en wordt het daaronder liggende concept  verduidelijkt. Vervolgens wordt bekeken op welke wijze het begrip zijn beslag in het Verdrag heeft gekregen, hoe het aldaar is ingebed en in hoeverre het vanuit en door de diverse Europese instellingen wordt gebezigd. Daarnaast is op exploratieve wijze geïnventariseerd hoe binnen het Europese discours over het begrip, het onderliggende concept sociale markteconomie en haar mogelijkheden in de Europese praktijk wordt gedacht.  Ria Slegers is sinds 2002 verbonden aan de Open Universiteit en vanaf 2010 werkzaam als docent/onderzoeker bij de vakgroep Strafrecht, Internationaal en Europees Recht van de faculteit Cultuur- en Rechtswetenschappen.

Potestas AlienandiPotestas Alienandi
Javier E. Rodríguez Diez

The transfer of ownership by a non-owner is a common situation in everyday commercial practice. However, the dogmatic framework surrounding it has often led to controversy when studying both Roman and modern private law. Key to this controversy is the introduction by German scholars, in the course of the 19th century, of the notion of ‘direct representation’ in order to approach the transfer of ownership by a non-owner. Regarding the study of Roman law, this involved assuming the existence of a primitive prohibition to alienate through a non-owner, since ‘direct representation’ was seen as a later innovation. This starting point had a decisive effect on the study of the transfer of ownership by a non-owner in Roman law, particularly concerning the significance of the voluntas domini, the way in which legal guardians alienate, the scope of praetorian innovations, the possibility to transfer ownership through formal acts and the role of the nemo plus rule. Regarding modern private law, this starting point has brought along a radical distinction based on whether the alienation takes place in the context of direct representation or not. This book attempts to offer a fresh view through a source-oriented approach in order to provide an outlook on the evolution of the transfer of ownership by a non-owner in Roman law, as well as the dogmatic and systematic standpoints among the jurists of the ius commune. Special attention is dedicated to the innovations of German scholarship, due to their significance for the study both of Roman law and for the evolution of modern private law.

Crimmigration law in the European Union (Part 2)Crimmigration law in the European Union (Part 2)
A. Pahladsingh

In the European Union the Return Directive aims at establishing common standards and procedures to be applied in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals (Article 1).  In part 2 of the serie on crimmigration in the EU this research is focusing on 2 other instruments of the Return Directive: the return decision and the detention.
As defined in Article 3 (4) a return decision “means an administrative or judicial decision or act, stating or declaring the stay of a thirdcountry national to be illegal and imposing or stating an obligation to return.” According to Article 6 of the Return Directive Member States are obliged to issue a return decision to any third-country national staying illegally in their territory, unless an express derogation is foreseen by Union Law.
As studies have showed in some countries of nationality there is for the illegal third-country national, who is expelled by EU Member States, a risk of criminalization in the form of criminal sanctions such as fines and detention. This is the situation when these countries of nationality criminalize emigration. Forced to return immediately to their countries of departure or nationality, these “inadmissibles” never fully become immigrants. I label this as double crimmigrations. These failed migrants become at least suspect citizens and they risk a form of double crimmigration in their countries of departure or nationality as they risk to be penalized twice: firstly by their involuntary return and secondly by the instigation of ciminal proceedings against them in the country of nationality. Double crimmigration should become a topic in EU return policy and security policy in which the EU should also formulate solutions.

The recast Reception Conditions DirectiveThe recast Reception Conditions Directive
P. Minderhoud & T. Strik (eds)

On 20 July 2015 the deadline expired for the transposition of the recast Reception Conditions Directive (Directive 2013/33/EU of 26 June 2013 laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection (recast), OJEU 2013 L180/96).   The presentations on which this book is based, were originally given during a seminar on the Recast Reception Conditions Directive. This seminar took place at the Centre for Migration Law (Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence), Faculty of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, on Tuesday 8 December 2015.   In light of the very substantial level of interest, we publish a book on the results of this seminar in order to enable those who were not able to attend to benefit from the wealth of knowledge and information which was shared. The book is divided in two sections. The first section deals with the central themes and the problem issues of the recast Reception Conditions Directive. The second part of the book focuses on the implementation of the recast Reception Conditions Directive in a selected number of Member States.   This book offers insight in all the different aspects of the recast Reception Conditions Directive.

Sturen zonder Schuren Sturen zonder Schuren
B. Bröcking

In 2015 heeft de Jeugdwet het stelsel van de jeugdhulp ingrijpende veranderd. Gemeenten hebben de verantwoording gekregen voor alle hulp aan kinderen en gezinnen met opvoed- en opgroeiproblemen. Het doel van de Jeugdwet is door middel van onder andere preventie, eigen kracht en meer ruimte voor de hulpverleners een systeem te krijgen van toegankelijke, betaalbare jeugdhulp van goede kwaliteit. Dit proefschrift behandelt de positie van de cliënt in de jeugdhulp. Staat de cliënt centraal, dat wil zeggen heeft hij keuzen in de aangeboden hulp en is deze van goede kwaliteit? Daartoe worden de relaties tussen cliënt, hulpverlener en overheid onderzocht. Deze relaties kunnen schuren. Cliënten kunnen hulp vragen die niet past bij hun probleem, hulpverleners kunnen niet effectieve behandelingen toepassen en de overheid kan te veel bezuinigen. Dit leidt ertoe dat de cliënt niet de gewenste hulp van goede kwaliteit krijgt. Geconstateerd is dat cliënten moeilijk keuzen kunnen maken in hun zorgverlening. De enige partij die de cliënt daarbij kan helpen is de hulpverlener vanwege zijn professionele kennis en ervaring. Gemeenten hebben als doel de kosten van de jeugdhulp te beheersen. Zij hebben echter weinig zicht op de oorzaken van de vraag naar jeugdhulp. Ook hebben gemeenten geen greep op de plaats waar de kosten gemaakt worden: de behandelrelatie. Als oplossing wordt overleg tussen gemeenten, cliënten en zorgverleners voorgesteld. Dit veronderstelt dat partijen elkaar vertrouwen en verbinding zoeken om tot overleg over een toegankelijk en betaalbare zorg van goede kwaliteit te komen.

Privacy wetgevingPrivacy wetgeving
S. Fennell, R. Kroes, F. Koppejan, A. Thier (red.)

Met nieuwe Nederlandse regels sinds 1 januari 2016 en de in april 2016 aangenomen Europese Algemene Verordening Gegevensbescherming (AVG) is privacy weer volop in beweging na een lange periode van relatieve rust. In deze bundel tref je een overzicht aan van de belangrijkste algemene wet- en regelgeving op het gebied van privacy en de bescherming van persoonsgegevens. Deze bundel is daarmee een onmisbaar hulpmiddel voor iedereen die vanuit zijn of haar vakgebied met privacykwesties in aanraking komt. Zoals je van Privacy Company gewend bent, bevat ook deze versie suggesties van superheld Captain Privacy, de boetebedragen bij de betreffende artikelen en een handig trefwoordenregister. Bent u al voorbereidingen aan het treffen voor de inwerkingtreding van de AVG in 2018 of heeft u vragen over implementatie van andere relevante wet-en regelgeving? Wij helpen u graag op een
praktische manier met alle privacy gerelateerde vraagstukken door middel van advies, tooling en

Nationality Requirements in Olympic SportsNationality Requirements in Olympic Sports
A.S. Wollmann

Who may compete for a country at the Olympics?
While the qualification rounds for the Rio Olympics have received huge media attention, the underlying question regarding which country an athlete may compete for only makes headlines when prominent athletes change the country for whom they are competing. Nationality requirements are an issue that has yet to be brought to the forefront of public discussion, as most recent works have only focussed on a small number of Olympic sports. This book explores the terra incognita of nationality requirements in Olympic sports, providing not only a comprehensive overview of the different sports, but also placing them in the wider context of the international standards of nationality law. The following questions are examined:
What are the eligibility criteria currently employed by the Olympic Sports? To what extent is it problematic to align these currently applicable eligibility criteria with international standards of nationality law? How can tensions that may exist between the criteria applied by the sporting federations and the international standards of nationality law be solved?

G. R. de Groot & O.W. Vonk

While nationality law has traditionally been part of the nation-state’s ‘reserved domain’, recent decades have witnessed a growing body of international standards and guidelines in this area. This book provides the first comprehensive collection of multilateral international treaties, other international documents and case law of international tribunals regarding nationality law. Together these materials reflect the currently existing status of nationality under international law.
In addition, from being a stable field of law, nationality law has been subject to growing instrumentalization and change. International Standards on Nationality Law thus examines topical issues relating to nationality such as discriminatory practices in relation to gender, ethnicity and race, the status of surrogate-born children, diplomatic protection, the revocation of nationality of convicted terrorists, and ‘citizenship-for-sale’ programmes. Extensive bibliographical references have been included throughout, enabling the reader to identify relevant publications for further reading. Gerard-René de Groot is Professor of Comparative Law and Private International Law at Maastricht University and the University of Aruba (the Netherlands), and co-director of the Maastricht Centre for Citizenship, Migration and Development (MACIMIDE). He is the author of more than 500 publications in the areas of comparative law, nationality law and legal translation, and has acted on numerous occasions as expert-consultant to both national and international bodies dealing with matters of nationality law.
Olivier Willem Vonk holds a PhD from the European University Institute (Italy) and is currently a Marie Curie COFUND Fellow at the University of Liège (Belgium). Previously, he was a Marie Curie Outgoing Fellow at Maastricht University and a visiting researcher at Georgetown University (US). His publications include Dual Nationality in the European Union and Nationality Law in the Western Hemisphere (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers).
The authors are Consortium Members of the EUDO CITIZENSHIP Observatory and have collaborated with different organisations and institutions on issues of nationality law, including the Council of Europe, UNHCR, and the European Parliament.

De verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk der NederlandenDe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
Prof. mr. P.P.T. Bovend’Eert Mr. drs. T.E.J.H. van Gennip S.P. Poppelaars LLM, BSc Mr. drs. J.J.J. Sillen (red)

Op 18 december 2015 vond de jaarlijkse staatsrechtconferentie plaats. De organisatie ervan was in handen van de vaksectie staatsrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen. De conferentie was gewijd aan de verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden.
Op 10 oktober 2010 onderging het Koninkrijk een ingrijpende staatsrechtelijke en staatkundige hervorming. Krachtens artikel 1 van het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden omvat het Koninkrijk sindsdien de landen Nederland, Aruba, Curaçao en Sint Maarten. De Caribische eilanden Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba maken sindsdien elk deel uit van het staatsbestel van Nederland. Daarnaast zijn in het kader van artikel 38 Statuut enige zogeheten consensusrijkswetten tot stand gekomen op onder meer de terreinen van rechtspleging, rechtshandhaving en het financieel toezicht. Sinds 2010 legt artikel 12a Statuut vast dat bij rijkswet voorzieningen worden getroffen voor de behandeling van geschillen tussen het Koninkrijk en de landen. De conferentie volgde kort na de in 2015 gehouden evaluaties van de nieuwe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk.
Deskundigen hebben tijdens de conferentie vanuit verschillende invalshoeken aandacht besteed aan deze nieuwe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk. Deze bundel bevat de tekst van de voordrachten van de plenaire presentaties en de papers van deskundigen op het gebied van deze nieuwe verhoudingen in het Koninkrijk. Deze bijdragen gaan over (1) constitutionele toetsing en geschilbeslechting in het Koninkrijk, (2) vraagstukken van vertegenwoordiging, samenwerking en toezicht in autonome en Koninkrijksaangelegenheden, en (3) het vraagstuk van differentiatie of gelijkheid in het kader van de positie van de BES-eilanden in de Nederlandse rechtsorde.

Crimmigration law in the European UnionCrimmigration law in the European Union
A. Pahladsingh & J. Waasdorp

In the European Union the Return Directive aims at establishing common standards and procedures to be applied in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals. An entry ban prohibits entry into and stay on the territory of all EU Member States (except the United Kingdom and Ireland) and Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. This instrument is intended to have preventive effects and to foster the credibility of EU return policy. The clear message is that those who disregard migration rules in the Member States will not be allowed to re-enter any Member State for a specified period. Furthermore, the entry ban is an instrument which can be used to prevent or to counter terrorism. The use of criminal sanctions in the area of immigration opens the largely political debate on the legitimacy of the process of criminalizing foreigners. The merger between criminal law and immigration law has been classified as “crimmigration law”. The entry ban falls within the scope of crimmigration law. The relation between immigration law and criminal law and the compatibility of national penal measures imposed as a punishment for illegal migration is developed in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union. There is a well-established jurisprudence on the interplay between domestic penal sanctions and the effectiveness of return policy. The effectiveness of the return process would be compromised by the application of a criminal penalty for violating the entry ban, because the primary objective of the Directive is not to prevent illegal presence in the territory but rather to put an end to it. The current issue is to determine to what extent the use of criminal sanctions by Member States is allowed in the situation that an entry ban is issued against an illegally staying third-country national. This research focuses on this issue.  

Narratives on Organised Crime in EuropeNarratives on Organised Crime in Europe
P. Van Duyne, M. Scheinost, G. Antonopoulos, J. Harvey & K. Von Lampe (eds.)

In this Cross-border Crime Volume a number of important European criminal narratives have been brought together. The chapters speak of criminal ‘narratives’ having a particular leitmotif around which elements of criminal phenomena are ordered such that a specific meaning can be conveyed. Corruption, organised and economic crime, fraud and money laundering are important themes for narratives about crime in Europe. The phenomenon of corruption has many common elements, which in each country become re-arranged into a national narrative or discourse. At present such narratives on corruption in Eastern Europe are highly relevant, in particular in view of the relationships with the EU. Also the organised crime narrative still has a prominent place in the European crime scene, whether it concerns Russian organised crime or cybercrime, targeting banks as well as individuals. The organisation of fraud and economic crime remains a serious challenge to consumers as well as the business sector. Amidst all these high-level forms of criminal organisation one can also find “traditional” versions of organised lawlessness, for example outlaw motorcycle gangs that continue to capture the imagination of law enforcement and the general public, not only Scandinavia.   This fifteenth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium, held once a year at a different locatuion in Europe since 1999, contains the peer reviewed contributions of 18 internationally established and up-coming experts in the field of organised and economic crime, corruption, fraud and money laundering. The chapters are based on original empirical date and critical analysis and provide new insights in these fields, stimulating a critical discourse on criminal phenomena in Europe and beyond.

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