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100 Years of Child Protection

Children in need are the concern of parents, professionals, policymakers, society and, last but not least, of children themselves. Children in need, including children who cause serious problems, are entitled to protection and assistance. What is the future of child protection? In 1905, legislation on children and people came into force in the Netherlands: a law concerning the removal of children from parental care and control: a juvenile justice act: and a law on child protection measures. In the same period, similar laws were adopted in other European countries. The Century of the Child, declared by Ellen Key, had just begun. One hundred years later it is time for retrospection, and for reflection and new perspectives, taking guidence from the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This important international human rights treaty was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 20 november 1989, and provides standards and procedures that should form the minimum basis for the protection of children.

In this book, professionals from a variety of disciplines share their ideas, experiences solutions and visions, concerning the past and the future, between East and West, and North and South. The book concludes with a set of inspiring recommendations and principles for everyone working with and for children to fully realise the right to child protection.

Recent Publications


Onderwijs in Nederlands-IndiŽ
N.S. Efthymiou

Dit boek is een studie over een aspect van het constitutionele recht voor Nederlands-Indië, en wel over het onderwijs in Nederlands-Indië in de periode 1602-1942. Het boek geeft een beschrijving van dit aspect en beoogt het aspect te typeren. Om de beschrijving en de typering begrijpelijk te maken gaat aan de studie over onderwijs in Nederlands-Indië een korte behandeling vooraf van algemene kenmerken van constitutioneel recht voor Nederlands-Indië. N.S. Efthymiou is universitair docent staatsrecht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.


From Policies against Poverty to the Human Right not to be Poor
M. Papandreou

Poverty is a serious violation of human rights; this has been reiterated in numerous, national and international, documents and studies. The impact of poverty on the enjoyment of human rights has been explored extensively, and several commitments to eradicate poverty through promotion and protection of all human rights have been undertaken at a national, regional and international level.
There is however a question that has not been answered clearly and explicitly, and this is precisely the question that the author of this book attempts to answer, namely whether or not at this time it is possible to shift from the idea of poverty being a violation of various human rights to the idea of freedom from poverty being a distinct and separate new human right, which could simply be called “the right not to be poor”. The author examines whether or not those mainly responsible for dealing with poverty at a global and domestic level, namely international organisations and national states, have slowly but clearly moved from perceiving poverty as a violation of a number of rights to recognising a human right not to be poor. In this book the author illustrates how international organisations and national states very often decide on and implement policies, adopt legislation or create case law, based on a firm belief that people have the right to be protected against poverty. The author attempts to elucidate the nature of the right not to be poor and its possible sources and theoretical foundations, and shed light on several interesting aspects of its implementation at a national and international level. 


D. McLean

We leven in een tijd waarin velen in het uitgaanscircuit blind varen op de uiterlijke schijn van de ander, en waarin vluchtige seksuele escapades lijken te zijn uitgegroeid tot het vaste sluitstuk van een leuk avondje stappen. In dit hedonistische klimaat, dat treffend het dynamische nachtleven van een metropool als Utrecht typeert, regeert de fantasie van degene die zich aan het spel der verleiding waagt. In dit spel, waarin de alcohol rijkelijk vloeit en verboden verdovende middelen eveneens niet worden geschuwd, begint grootspraak al gauw een eigen leven te leiden, en dreigt de reeds precaire balans tussen verleiding en misleiding dieper te worden ondergedompeld in het moeras van suggestie en dubbelzinnigheid. Het minder consensuele seksuele verkeer dat zulk bedrog kan bewerkstelligen, is in menig rechtsstelsel strafbaar gesteld.
In deze thesis staat de meer flagrante vorm van seksuele misleiding – het onder valse voorwendselen aanzetten van anderen tot het plegen of ondergaan van seksuele handelingen – centraal. Onderzocht wordt in hoeverre de praktische straffeloosheid hiervan te rijmen valt met de eerdergenoemde positieve verplichting tot een effectieve bestrijding van zedendelicten. Voorts wordt gekeken op wat voor wijzen de principes van een terughoudende toepassing van het strafrecht en de billijke etikettering van de gedraging der verdachte beperkingen stellen aan de reikwijdte van een eventuele strafbaarstelling van de seksuele misleiding. Bij het formuleren van zo’n strafbaarstelling wordt ter inspiratie onder meer gekeken naar de zedenwetgeving van Engeland en Wales, waar men al sinds jaar en dag strafrechtelijk optreedt tegende uitwassen van de seksuele misleiding. Beoogd wordt een oplossing voor het door mij gepercipieerde gat in de Nederlandse zedenwetgeving te vinden; een remedie die zowel recht doet aan de behoefte van de gemeenschap aan bestraffing van ernstige vormen van seksuele misleiding als rekening houdt met de aard van het strafrecht als laatste redmiddel ter bestrijding van maatschappelijke problemen.


The recast Reception Conditions Directive
P. Minderhoud & T. Strik (eds)

On 20 July 2015 the deadline expired for the transposition of the recast Reception Conditions Directive (Directive 2013/33/EU of 26 June 2013 laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection (recast), OJEU 2013 L180/96).   The presentations on which this book is based, were originally given during a seminar on the Recast Reception Conditions Directive. This seminar took place at the Centre for Migration Law (Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence), Faculty of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, on Tuesday 8 December 2015.   In light of the very substantial level of interest, we publish a book on the results of this seminar in order to enable those who were not able to attend to benefit from the wealth of knowledge and information which was shared. The book is divided in two sections. The first section deals with the central themes and the problem issues of the recast Reception Conditions Directive. The second part of the book focuses on the implementation of the recast Reception Conditions Directive in a selected number of Member States.   This book offers insight in all the different aspects of the recast Reception Conditions Directive.


Narratives on Organised Crime in Europe
P. Van Duyne, M. Scheinost, G. Antonopoulos, J. Harvey & K. Von Lampe (eds.)

In this Cross-border Crime Volume a number of important European criminal narratives have been brought together. The chapters speak of criminal ‘narratives’ having a particular leitmotif around which elements of criminal phenomena are ordered such that a specific meaning can be conveyed. Corruption, organised and economic crime, fraud and money laundering are important themes for narratives about crime in Europe. The phenomenon of corruption has many common elements, which in each country become re-arranged into a national narrative or discourse. At present such narratives on corruption in Eastern Europe are highly relevant, in particular in view of the relationships with the EU. Also the organised crime narrative still has a prominent place in the European crime scene, whether it concerns Russian organised crime or cybercrime, targeting banks as well as individuals. The organisation of fraud and economic crime remains a serious challenge to consumers as well as the business sector. Amidst all these high-level forms of criminal organisation one can also find “traditional” versions of organised lawlessness, for example outlaw motorcycle gangs that continue to capture the imagination of law enforcement and the general public, not only Scandinavia.   This fifteenth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium, held once a year at a different locatuion in Europe since 1999, contains the peer reviewed contributions of 18 internationally established and up-coming experts in the field of organised and economic crime, corruption, fraud and money laundering. The chapters are based on original empirical date and critical analysis and provide new insights in these fields, stimulating a critical discourse on criminal phenomena in Europe and beyond.


Crimmigration law in the European Union
A. Pahladsingh & J. Waasdorp

In the European Union the Return Directive aims at establishing common standards and procedures to be applied in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals. An entry ban prohibits entry into and stay on the territory of all EU Member States (except the United Kingdom and Ireland) and Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. This instrument is intended to have preventive effects and to foster the credibility of EU return policy. The clear message is that those who disregard migration rules in the Member States will not be allowed to re-enter any Member State for a specified period. Furthermore, the entry ban is an instrument which can be used to prevent or to counter terrorism. The use of criminal sanctions in the area of immigration opens the largely political debate on the legitimacy of the process of criminalizing foreigners. The merger between criminal law and immigration law has been classified as “crimmigration law”. The entry ban falls within the scope of crimmigration law. The relation between immigration law and criminal law and the compatibility of national penal measures imposed as a punishment for illegal migration is developed in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union. There is a well-established jurisprudence on the interplay between domestic penal sanctions and the effectiveness of return policy. The effectiveness of the return process would be compromised by the application of a criminal penalty for violating the entry ban, because the primary objective of the Directive is not to prevent illegal presence in the territory but rather to put an end to it. The current issue is to determine to what extent the use of criminal sanctions by Member States is allowed in the situation that an entry ban is issued against an illegally staying third-country national. This research focuses on this issue.  


G. R. de Groot & O.W. Vonk

While nationality law has traditionally been part of the nation-state’s ‘reserved domain’, recent decades have witnessed a growing body of international standards and guidelines in this area. This book provides the first comprehensive collection of multilateral international treaties, other international documents and case law of international tribunals regarding nationality law. Together these materials reflect the currently existing status of nationality under international law.
In addition, from being a stable field of law, nationality law has been subject to growing instrumentalization and change. International Standards on Nationality Law thus examines topical issues relating to nationality such as discriminatory practices in relation to gender, ethnicity and race, the status of surrogate-born children, diplomatic protection, the revocation of nationality of convicted terrorists, and ‘citizenship-for-sale’ programmes. Extensive bibliographical references have been included throughout, enabling the reader to identify relevant publications for further reading. Gerard-René de Groot is Professor of Comparative Law and Private International Law at Maastricht University and the University of Aruba (the Netherlands), and co-director of the Maastricht Centre for Citizenship, Migration and Development (MACIMIDE). He is the author of more than 500 publications in the areas of comparative law, nationality law and legal translation, and has acted on numerous occasions as expert-consultant to both national and international bodies dealing with matters of nationality law.
Olivier Willem Vonk holds a PhD from the European University Institute (Italy) and is currently a Marie Curie COFUND Fellow at the University of Liège (Belgium). Previously, he was a Marie Curie Outgoing Fellow at Maastricht University and a visiting researcher at Georgetown University (US). His publications include Dual Nationality in the European Union and Nationality Law in the Western Hemisphere (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers).
The authors are Consortium Members of the EUDO CITIZENSHIP Observatory and have collaborated with different organisations and institutions on issues of nationality law, including the Council of Europe, UNHCR, and the European Parliament.


Nationality Requirements in Olympic Sports
A.S. Wollmann

Who may compete for a country at the Olympics?
While the qualification rounds for the Rio Olympics have received huge media attention, the underlying question regarding which country an athlete may compete for only makes headlines when prominent athletes change the country for whom they are competing. Nationality requirements are an issue that has yet to be brought to the forefront of public discussion, as most recent works have only focussed on a small number of Olympic sports. This book explores the terra incognita of nationality requirements in Olympic sports, providing not only a comprehensive overview of the different sports, but also placing them in the wider context of the international standards of nationality law. The following questions are examined:
What are the eligibility criteria currently employed by the Olympic Sports? To what extent is it problematic to align these currently applicable eligibility criteria with international standards of nationality law? How can tensions that may exist between the criteria applied by the sporting federations and the international standards of nationality law be solved?

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